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Neural Network Methods In Natural Language Processing

Author : Yoav Goldberg
ISBN : 9781627052955
Genre : Computers
File Size : 75. 55 MB
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Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.

Neural Network Methods In Natural Language Processing

Author : Yoav Goldberg
ISBN : 9781681731551
Genre : Computers
File Size : 30. 68 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.

Handbook Of Natural Language Processing

Author : Robert Dale
ISBN : 0824790006
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 30. 97 MB
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This study explores the design and application of natural language text-based processing systems, based on generative linguistics, empirical copus analysis, and artificial neural networks. It emphasizes the practical tools to accommodate the selected system.

Subsymbolic Natural Language Processing

Author : Risto Miikkulainen
ISBN : 0262132907
Genre : Computers
File Size : 27. 97 MB
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Risto Miikkulainen draws on recent connectionist work in language comprehension tocreate a model that can understand natural language. Using the DISCERN system as an example, hedescribes a general approach to building high-level cognitive models from distributed neuralnetworks and shows how the special properties of such networks are useful in modeling humanperformance. In this approach connectionist networks are not only plausible models of isolatedcognitive phenomena, but also sufficient constituents for complete artificial intelligencesystems.Distributed neural networks have been very successful in modeling isolated cognitivephenomena, but complex high-level behavior has been tractable only with symbolic artificialintelligence techniques. Aiming to bridge this gap, Miikkulainen describes DISCERN, a completenatural language processing system implemented entirely at the subsymbolic level. In DISCERN,distributed neural network models of parsing, generating, reasoning, lexical processing, andepisodic memory are integrated into a single system that learns to read, paraphrase, and answerquestions about stereotypical narratives.Miikkulainen's work, which includes a comprehensive surveyof the connectionist literature related to natural language processing, will prove especiallyvaluable to researchers interested in practical techniques for high-level representation,inferencing, memory modeling, and modular connectionist architectures.Risto Miikkulainen is anAssistant Professor in the Department of Computer Sciences at The University of Texas atAustin.

Bayesian Analysis In Natural Language Processing

Author : Shay Cohen
ISBN : 9781627054218
Genre : Computers
File Size : 29. 76 MB
Format : PDF
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Natural language processing (NLP) went through a profound transformation in the mid-1980s when it shifted to make heavy use of corpora and data-driven techniques to analyze language. Since then, the use of statistical techniques in NLP has evolved in several ways. One such example of evolution took place in the late 1990s or early 2000s, when full-fledged Bayesian machinery was introduced to NLP. This Bayesian approach to NLP has come to accommodate for various shortcomings in the frequentist approach and to enrich it, especially in the unsupervised setting, where statistical learning is done without target prediction examples. We cover the methods and algorithms that are needed to fluently read Bayesian learning papers in NLP and to do research in the area. These methods and algorithms are partially borrowed from both machine learning and statistics and are partially developed "in-house" in NLP. We cover inference techniques such as Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and variational inference, Bayesian estimation, and nonparametric modeling. We also cover fundamental concepts in Bayesian statistics such as prior distributions, conjugacy, and generative modeling. Finally, we cover some of the fundamental modeling techniques in NLP, such as grammar modeling and their use with Bayesian analysis.

The Handbook Of Computational Linguistics And Natural Language Processing

Author : Alexander Clark
ISBN : 9781118448670
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 75. 2 MB
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This comprehensive reference work provides an overview of the concepts, methodologies, and applications in computational linguistics and natural language processing (NLP). Features contributions by the top researchers in the field, reflecting the work that is driving the discipline forward Includes an introduction to the major theoretical issues in these fields, as well as the central engineering applications that the work has produced Presents the major developments in an accessible way, explaining the close connection between scientific understanding of the computational properties of natural language and the creation of effective language technologies Serves as an invaluable state-of-the-art reference source for computational linguists and software engineers developing NLP applications in industrial research and development labs of software companies

Learning To Rank For Information Retrieval And Natural Language Processing

Author : Hang Li
ISBN : 9781627055857
Genre : Computers
File Size : 34. 7 MB
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Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work. The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as two basic ranking tasks, namely ranking creation (or simply ranking) and ranking aggregation. In ranking creation, given a request, one wants to generate a ranking list of offerings based on the features derived from the request and the offerings. In ranking aggregation, given a request, as well as a number of ranking lists of offerings, one wants to generate a new ranking list of the offerings. Ranking creation (or ranking) is the major problem in learning to rank. It is usually formalized as a supervised learning task. The author gives detailed explanations on learning for ranking creation and ranking aggregation, including training and testing, evaluation, feature creation, and major approaches. Many methods have been proposed for ranking creation. The methods can be categorized as the pointwise, pairwise, and listwise approaches according to the loss functions they employ. They can also be categorized according to the techniques they employ, such as the SVM based, Boosting based, and Neural Network based approaches. The author also introduces some popular learning to rank methods in details. These include: PRank, OC SVM, McRank, Ranking SVM, IR SVM, GBRank, RankNet, ListNet & ListMLE, AdaRank, SVM MAP, SoftRank, LambdaRank, LambdaMART, Borda Count, Markov Chain, and CRanking. The author explains several example applications of learning to rank including web search, collaborative filtering, definition search, keyphrase extraction, query dependent summarization, and re-ranking in machine translation. A formulation of learning for ranking creation is given in the statistical learning framework. Ongoing and future research directions for learning to rank are also discussed. Table of Contents: Learning to Rank / Learning for Ranking Creation / Learning for Ranking Aggregation / Methods of Learning to Rank / Applications of Learning to Rank / Theory of Learning to Rank / Ongoing and Future Work

Natural Language Processing With Python

Author : Steven Bird
ISBN : 9780596555719
Genre : Computers
File Size : 62. 72 MB
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This book offers a highly accessible introduction to natural language processing, the field that supports a variety of language technologies, from predictive text and email filtering to automatic summarization and translation. With it, you'll learn how to write Python programs that work with large collections of unstructured text. You'll access richly annotated datasets using a comprehensive range of linguistic data structures, and you'll understand the main algorithms for analyzing the content and structure of written communication. Packed with examples and exercises, Natural Language Processing with Python will help you: Extract information from unstructured text, either to guess the topic or identify "named entities" Analyze linguistic structure in text, including parsing and semantic analysis Access popular linguistic databases, including WordNet and treebanks Integrate techniques drawn from fields as diverse as linguistics and artificial intelligence This book will help you gain practical skills in natural language processing using the Python programming language and the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) open source library. If you're interested in developing web applications, analyzing multilingual news sources, or documenting endangered languages -- or if you're simply curious to have a programmer's perspective on how human language works -- you'll find Natural Language Processing with Python both fascinating and immensely useful.

Mastering Natural Language Processing With Python

Author : Deepti Chopra
ISBN : 9781783989058
Genre : Computers
File Size : 44. 66 MB
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Maximize your NLP capabilities while creating amazing NLP projects in Python About This Book Learn to implement various NLP tasks in Python Gain insights into the current and budding research topics of NLP This is a comprehensive step-by-step guide to help students and researchers create their own projects based on real-life applications Who This Book Is For This book is for intermediate level developers in NLP with a reasonable knowledge level and understanding of Python. What You Will Learn Implement string matching algorithms and normalization techniques Implement statistical language modeling techniques Get an insight into developing a stemmer, lemmatizer, morphological analyzer, and morphological generator Develop a search engine and implement POS tagging concepts and statistical modeling concepts involving the n gram approach Familiarize yourself with concepts such as the Treebank construct, CFG construction, the CYK Chart Parsing algorithm, and the Earley Chart Parsing algorithm Develop an NER-based system and understand and apply the concepts of sentiment analysis Understand and implement the concepts of Information Retrieval and text summarization Develop a Discourse Analysis System and Anaphora Resolution based system In Detail Natural Language Processing is one of the fields of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence that is concerned with human-computer interaction. It provides a seamless interaction between computers and human beings and gives computers the ability to understand human speech with the help of machine learning. This book will give you expertise on how to employ various NLP tasks in Python, giving you an insight into the best practices when designing and building NLP-based applications using Python. It will help you become an expert in no time and assist you in creating your own NLP projects using NLTK. You will sequentially be guided through applying machine learning tools to develop various models. We'll give you clarity on how to create training data and how to implement major NLP applications such as Named Entity Recognition, Question Answering System, Discourse Analysis, Transliteration, Word Sense disambiguation, Information Retrieval, Sentiment Analysis, Text Summarization, and Anaphora Resolution. Style and approach This is an easy-to-follow guide, full of hands-on examples of real-world tasks. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and for the more inquisitive, there are more details of the concepts used.

Cognitive Approach To Natural Language Processing

Author : Bernadette Sharp
ISBN : 9780081023433
Genre : Computers
File Size : 54. 18 MB
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As natural language processing spans many different disciplines, it is sometimes difficult to understand the contributions and the challenges that each of them presents. This book explores the special relationship between natural language processing and cognitive science, and the contribution of computer science to these two fields. It is based on the recent research papers submitted at the international workshops of Natural Language and Cognitive Science (NLPCS) which was launched in 2004 in an effort to bring together natural language researchers, computer scientists, and cognitive and linguistic scientists to collaborate together and advance research in natural language processing. The chapters cover areas related to language understanding, language generation, word association, word sense disambiguation, word predictability, text production and authorship attribution. This book will be relevant to students and researchers interested in the interdisciplinary nature of language processing. Discusses the problems and issues that researchers face, providing an opportunity for developers of NLP systems to learn from cognitive scientists, cognitive linguistics and neurolinguistics Provides a valuable opportunity to link the study of natural language processing to the understanding of the cognitive processes of the brain

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